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Future State Mapping: Part Three, Focus On Process Flow



<< Continue from previous page


4- Focus on Product Flow

You will have to design your production flow system

4-1.0 Define here where in the process you need continuous flow


4-2.0 Define the required level or type of production flow:  

4-2.1 Make one by one production flow

4-2.2 Make small lots per say 5, 10 or 50 pieces (small lots are easier to control)

4-2.3 Establish a production cell

4-2.4 Execute line process balance (See how to create a production line balancing)

4-2.5 Establish and upstream production control

4-2.6 Makes only the model or pieces required and in the quantity needed

4-2.7 Make the pieces when needed

4.2.8 Select  what production flow and productivity improvements to use


How to Balance a Production Line

Referring from the current state map, make a table as shown, them make a chart to visualize the cycle time of each operation, this way will b easy to see graphically how unbalanced the process is.


































Total  Cycle Time = 195 seconds



Define the required takt time, for this example let say that the takt time required is 40 (one unit made each 40 seconds), now we have to balance the line, first by calculating the number of required operators as follows:


Before balancing the line the required operators are =  (Total cycle time)/(Takt time) = 195/40 = 4.88 operators. In a normal shift with 27,600 seconds of available time and with a production pace of one unit each 40 seconds, the production capacity in one shift is 690 units with 4.88 operators. Now compare the required capacity of 690 units against the capacity of each operation to see what operation has overproduction and which one is short













































Now the next step is to  make each operation  capable of producing  within a takt time of 40 seconds. As can be seen from  both bars graphs, the cutting and the assembly operations are the ones that will require a cycle time balancing to meet the required takt time, also note that the cycle time for the forming operation is only 20 seconds meaning that this cycle time can be increased in 20 seconds to reduce cycle time for the cutting  operation.


Each operation musty be reviewed  to find out how to reduce cycle time and reduce needed operators, from the previous table is easy to note  100% excess capacity on the forming operation while cutting and assembly are short by 38%, if we translate this unbalance to operators  it will be:


Excess operators on the forming station =1

Shortage operators  on the cutting station = -0.24

Shortage operators  on the assembly station = -0.14

Total excess operators  due to unbalance = 1-0.24-0.14 = 0.62

It is interesting to see that just by balancing the line before any additional improvement it is possible to reduce 0.62 operators. Because we  can not physically cut in half one operator we must implement more improvements until we can reduce one full operator, we have to reassign part of the cutting to the forming operation and make other cycle time reduction improvements.


Improvements to consider to reduce cycle times:






































Continue on next page >>














Shift Capacity

Cycle Time
690 units is the desired production with a takt time of 40